Summer 2016 Volume 18 No. 3

Summer 2016 Volume 18 No. 3


Insight Turkey Volume 18 No 2, 2016




After the Coup Attempt, Turkey’s Success Story Continues


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 11-17

The July 15 coup attempt, which was orchestrated by the Pennsylvania-based terrorist organization led by Fetullah Gülen, highlighted the solidarity and unity in Turkey. It is of great importance to appreciate the historic nature of the people’s peaceful resistance against the coup attempt, taking into consideration the fact that Turkey has a long history of military interventions. Ironically, even though the main intention of the coup plot was to destabilize Turkish democracy and prosperity, it had the opposite effect. Turkey will strive to continue the success story of the past 14 years and rely on the support of its citizens to reach even higher goals.
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The Role that the Media Played in the Failure of the July 15 Coup Attempt


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 19-29

On the night of the July 15th coup attempt in Turkey both social and conventional media played important roles. Rather than inspiring and directing people, the Turkish media was used as a tool for communicating, motivating and disseminating reliable information throughout the world. This commentary aims to identify the media and military relations that characterized the July 15 case by examining the experience of the media outlets, the use of the media outlets they appealed to, as well as presenting an analysis of the media’s prevalent role in the history of Turkish coups.
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Turkey and the West after the Failed Coup: Possible Scenarios


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 31-42

Western powers are the main players that determine the national and international policies of Turkey, a NATO-member and a candidate country to the EU. The converse is also true, meaning that Turkey’s domestic political developments have always had an influence over the country’s relations with the West. The July 15 coup attempt is no exception in this regard. The botched coup is, without a doubt, a turning point in Turkey’s political history. Therefore, the present article aims at conceptualizing the eventual consequences of the July 15 coup attempt for Turkish foreign policy.
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Turkey and the West after the Failed Coup: Beyond Suspicion?


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 45-53

In the wake of the events of July 15, mutual suspicion is an accurate description of relations between Turkey and the U.S., and Turkish-Western relations as a whole. Going beyond suspicion remains a challenge, and ultimately a necessity. It will not be an easy challenge to meet. The essential logic of Turkish-Western cooperation has been reinforced by developments in Turkey’s region. But developments in Turkey, Europe and, not least, the U.S., suggest that the sense of shared values and long-term purpose has declined.
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Coup in Turkey and Egypt: Internal and External Dynamics


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 55-69

The failure of the July 15 coup attempt in Turkey gave rise to many comparisons between the coup attempt in Turkey and the coup in Egypt. This commentary compares the factors, which led to the success of the coup attempt in Egypt and the failure of the Turkish one. For this reason, it analyzes some differences in the social composition of the Egyptian and Turkish people, and the role of internal political actors, external powers, and the media in shaping the fate of the coup in Egypt and coup attempt in Turkey.
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Conflicting Reactions in the Middle East towards the Coup Attempt in Turkey: Between Opposing and Welcoming


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 71-81

Reactions in the Arab world to the July 15 coup attempt in Turkey varied between opposing and acclaiming it. Remarkably, some of the most authoritarian Arab regimes were amongst those clearly expressing their jubilation in the early stages of the coup attempt. As for Arab public opinion, particularly Islamists and those loyal to them in the whole region, they decidedly condemned the coup attempt. Furthermore they expressed a sincere satisfaction for the victory of the Turkish people and the strong unity they demonstrated in their combative defiance of the coup.
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July 15: The Glorious Resistance of Turkish Democracy


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 83-117

On 15 July 2016, Turkey experienced a milestone in its political history. An entity, judicially and officially recognized as the Gülenist Terror Organization (FETÖ), operating through a group of its disciples nested in the Turkish military, attempted to overthrow Turkey’s legitimate and elected government. Several important and unprecedented factors prevented the coup d’état. Among them, the determined and courageous approach of the ruling AK Party, in solidarity with its opposition; the heroic resistance of the people of Turkey, the Turkish police, and members of the Turkish armed forces; the anti-coup stance of the judiciary; and the democratic posture of the mainstream media. The foiling of the coup attempt will contribute tremendously to Turkish democracy in many respects. In short, the democracy in Turkey in the post-July 15 period will emerge stronger than ever before.
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A Historical Perspective on the July 2016 Coup Attempt in Turkey


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 119-138

This paper sets out the historical background to the July 15 coup attempt. It outlines the Turkish armed forces’ age-old interventionist tendencies and argues that this is driven by three overlapping impetuses. The first is concerns over its civilian colleagues’ policy towards external threats and internal dissent. The second is the military’s promotion of its own version of Islamic practice and identity. The third is its determination to protect and, where possible, advance its economic interests.
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Turkey’s Civil Rights Movement and the Reactionary Coup: Segregation, Emancipation, and the Western Reaction


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 141-167

Turkey went through a civil rights movement, or a “silent revolution,” under the AK Party governments between 2002 and 2013, in which the legally sanctioned segregationist measures that had previously structured the country’s political and social order were gradually abolished. This civil rights movement allowed for the public expression of religious observance and ethno-linguistic distinctiveness, thus elevating the status of previously denigrated religious conservatives and ethno-linguistic minorities to the level of equal citizenship. These reforms deprived the Gülenists and the PKK of their raison d'être. The PKK offensive in July 2015 and the Gülenist attempt at a military coup in July 2016 can be interpreted as the most violent reactions to-date against the non-violent civil rights movement Turkey went through under the AK Party governments.
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Measuring Social Perception of the July 15 Coup Attempt


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 169-204

This study aims to measure the social perception created by the impact of the July 15 coup attempt. The social picture that emerged during and after July 15 deserves greater sociological attention. A total of 250 people were martyred in this upheaval, making it the bloodiest coup attempt in the history of coups in Turkey. Social resistance to the perpetrators transformed into “democracy watch” countrywide which lasted 27 days. As part of the study, interviews were conducted with 176 people who participated in the democracy watch in 9 cities and 12 squares. Hence, the codes of social consciousness developed about the coup attempt and the perpetrators, amongst others, are captured by how the society perceives the coup attempt.
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July 15: Political Economy of a Foiled Coup


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 205-231

Turkey has suffered from interventions and enforcements against its elected governments, on the average, in every decade. Against this background, this study presents an assessment of the political economy of the foiled coup attempt on July 15, 2016 via the main theoretical approaches developed to explain the relations between economy and military coups. In this context, the study looks at the economic background of the pre-coup attempt period, crises scenarios serviced by international institutions and the goals of the perception management orchestrated by the western world for the attempted coup. In the same breath, the study presents in detail the FETÖ’s colossal economic power amounting to billions of dollars. The main conclusion is that the 15 July coup attempt was perpetrated to prevent an interruption in flow of financial resources into a murky network of business enterprises around a messianic cult.
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Culture, Social Contestation and Turkey’s Failed Coup: The Rivalry of Social Imaginaries


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 233-257

This article explores the processes involved in the emergence of rival social imaginaries, as they develop in a cultural ecosystem, relating it to Turkey’s failed coup. To accomplish that, it unravels how people construct their own nature by studying the social construction of reality, which is comprehensively partial to ‘values.’ What we see and how it is understood leads to the emergence of diverging ideological trajectories and, eventually, to social contestation as a result of competing claims. In Turkey, this ongoing contestation is reflected in the failed coup d’état. In other words, the failed coup d'état is explored as a clash of social imaginaries, in which the Gülenist social imaginary was vanquished by the AK party’s social imaginary.
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Turkey’s Kurdish Peace Process from a Conflict Resolution Perspective


Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, pp. 259-256

After Civil War: Division, Reconstruction, and Reconciliation in Contemporary Europe
By Bill Kissane
Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015, 312 pages, $69.95, ISBN: 9780812246520

Comparative Peace Processes
By Jonathan Tonge
Cambridge: Polity, 2014, 228 pages, £55.00, ISBN: 9780745642895

Counterterrorism in Turkey: Policy Choices and Policy Effects toward the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK)
By Mustafa Coşar Ünal
New York: Routledge, 2012, 244 pages, $54.95, ISBN: 9780415607490

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Turkish Foreign Policy in the New Millennium
HÜSEYİN IŞIKSAL and OZAN ÖRMECİ, Reviewed by IOANNIS GALARIOTIS, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, p. 269

Peace In Turkey 2023: The Question of Human Security and Conflict Transformation
TIM JACOBY and ALPARSLAN ÖZERDEM, Reviewed by ESRA DİLEK, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, p. 271

Turkish-American Relations, 1800-1952: Between the Stars, Stripes and the Crescent
ŞUHNAZ YILMAZ, Reviewed by NIKOS CHRISTOFIS, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, p. 273

Reinterpreting Exploration: The West in the World
DANE KENNEDY, Reviewed by FATMANUR KAÇAR, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, p. 276

The Rise of the BRICS in Africa: The Geopolitics of South-South Relations
PÁDRAİG CARMODY, Reviewed by BELMA ENGİN, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, p. 278

Governance of Seas and Oceans
EANDRÉ MONACO AND PATRİCK PROUZET, Reviewed by SERKAN BALKAN, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, p. 281

Muslims and Crusaders: Christianity’s Wars in the Middle East, 1095-1382, from the Islamic Sources
NIALL CHRISTIE, Reviewed by MUHAMMAD YASEEN GADA, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, p. 283

The Awakening of Muslim Democracy: A Dialogue
JOCELYNE CESARI, Reviewed by MUHAMMET FATİH ÖZKAN, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, p. 286

Localizing Islam in Europe: Turkish Islamic Communities in Germany and the Netherlands
AHMET YÜKLEYEN, Reviewed by IRINA ENGELMANN, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, p. 288

Peacebuilding and International Administration: The Cases of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo
NIELS VAN WILLIGEN, Reviewed by Evgeniia Shahin, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 3 / 2016, p. 291