SPRING 2015 Volume 17 No 2
Nation-Building in Iraq: Iran 1, the United States 0
Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, pp. 9-20
In different ways, both the United States and Iran have engaged in nation-building in Iraq. The United States did so very explicitly, announcing to the world its intention to rebuild post-Saddam Iraq as a democratic country with a US trained professional army. Iran’s approach was low profile and focused not on transforming Iraq into a new country but on building strong relations with important domestic actors. The US failed in Iraq, Iran succeeded in establishing itself as the most influential player. No matter how one judges the outcome, it entails an important lesson for the United States about its approach to nation-building.
Iran versus ISIL
Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, pp. 21-34
Iran’s response to the rise of ISIL has been driven by realpolitik rather than religious identity. ISIL threatens to undermine Iran’s regional alliance structure and destabilize its borders. Iran has responded not only by mobilizing Shi’a militias but also working with the United States and the Kurds. Nevertheless, this pragmatic approach may prove unstable over the long term. Iran’s new relationship with the United States remains fragile, and Iran’s regional interests conflict with those of the Sunni members of the anti-ISIL alliance.
Turkey’s Energy Security Strategy in the Emergent Global Energy Outlook
NURŞİN ATEŞOĞLU GÜNEY
Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, pp. 35-44
Since the beginning of the 2000s the global energy landscape has undergone constant change. Various factors have affected both the demand and supply sides of the global energy security outlook. As a result, both consumer and producer states have constantly felt the need to adapt to emergent market conditions. Hence, this paper first aims to highlight the continuous changes within the global energy market and simultaneously present and evaluate Turkey’s determined search to fulfill the requirements of its energy supply security strategy.
From Energy Security to Energy Governance: Turkey’s Role in a Globalizing Energy Landscape
Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, pp. 45-56
The logic of energy security is changing, with supply security being de-emphasized, governance and collective solutions are being increasingly emphasized. As issues of energy, climate change, sustainability, energy-poverty have become thoroughly intermingled, the challenge of energy security cannot be tackled merely by mercantilist, national, uni-dimensional tools. Turkish energy transition is in a excellent position to derive lessons from this security-governance supplantation and also be a catalyst for the region as well as the globe.
The Turkish Stream Project in the EU-Russia-Turkey Triangle
ERDAL TANAS KARAGÖL
Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, pp. 57-66
The cancellation of the South Stream Project and the announcement of a new pipeline project in its stead, recently promoted and called the Turkish Stream, to connect Russia and Europe via Turkey has added a new dimension to Turkey-Russia relations. With its stable economic indicators and geopolitical position, Turkey has gained a critical position in shaping the global energy map by means of similar projects. The Turkish Stream, which was launched in an atmosphere of souring relations between Russia and the European Union (EU), represents a project that could play a critical role in improving Turkey-EU relations.
Turkey’s Energy Strategy: Synchronizing Geopolitics and Foreign Policy with Energy Security
Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, pp. 67-82
This article analyzes Turkey’s official energy strategy to indicate how it responds to actual challenges by striking a compromise between market characteristics, and geopolitics and foreign policy. It points to Turkey’s growing energy demand as one of the most significant factors that affect the country’s policies and elaborates how Turkey’s supply security perspective intersects with geopolitical features and foreign policy issues on behalf of international cooperation. The first section, with conceptual highlights, gives a brief picture of the actual energy security challenges that Turkey faces. The second part focuses on Turkey’s official energy strategy (Turkey’s Energy Strategic Plan, as introduced by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources) to understand how these policies respond to the challenges Turkey faces. The final section gives an idea of how Turkey’s energy security strategy supports international cooperation with diverse actors.
Turkish-Azerbaijani Energy Relations: Significant Leverage in the Implementation of the Foreign Policy Interests of Both Countries
Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, pp. 83-100
Modern international relations are a reflection of the successful coordination of various factors, including close cooperation and a strategic vision for the future. A very significant example of this synergy is the relationship between Turkey and Azerbaijan. These two countries initially had their own historical relationship, based on common culture and ethnic origin. Skillfully taking advantage of these factors, Turkey and Azerbaijan rapidly began to develop their relations in all spheres. Special attention should be paid to their mutually beneficial cooperation in the energy sector, which is the driving force behind their economic and political initiatives. This article will analyze the impact of the energy cooperation between Azerbaijan and Turkey on the implementation of these states’ foreign policies, and the achievement of their national interests.
Turkey’s Energy Diversification Strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa
Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, pp. 101-116
Since 2003, by instituting a multidimensional foreign policy, Turkey has aimed to reach new geographies and regions by creating and using her soft power. A growing economy, historical connections with the targeted regions and close relations with western societies have resulted in a better reputation for Turkey, both in her region, and globally.
Exportation of EastMed Gas Resources: Is it Possible without Turkey?
İBRAHİM S. ARINÇ
Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, pp. 117-142
The exportation of groundbreaking Eastern Mediterranean (EastMed) gas resources will only be possible as a result of full regional stabilization and the peaceful resolution of all geopolitical hotspots. Ongoing tensions and chronic conflicts between individual players in the basin have resulted in economical depreciation. The general nature of the EastMed basin: small-scale, isolated reservoirs scattered around the world-class Leviathan field, require international investments, cost-effective solutions and widespread cooperation in order for the interconnection and commercialization of the sources to be achieved. Cross-border and basin-wide upstream investments and a new unified marketing model for EastMed gas via the most feasible way, i.e. the Turkish Gas Market, stands to be one of the most important energy and geopolitical successes of the last few decades.
International Dynamics of Oil Prices in Four Dimensions: An Analytical Investigation
Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, pp. 143-162
This article presents an analysis method for oil price movements that tries to combine different factors such as technology, economics, fear, and temporal relations, which are illustrated by fundamental indicators. Analysis method also allows the visualization of these relations with system dynamics figures. It aims to propose a set of these macro factors based on fundamental indicators to improve future forecasts. The vantage point is more of a practitioner’s reference point, since theory generally follows practice. By grouping the effects in categories, it tries to guide the reader to understand the “nuts and bolts” of oil price dynamics. While illustrating the points, practical examples are associated with the explanations. The ideas presented are categorized in an analytical manner to help the reader find his/her way. At the end of the article, the possible major events that could trigger the next oil crises are listed.
Faraway so Close!: The Effect of Asian Values on Australia’s Interactions with East Asia
Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, pp. 163-176
Asian values discourse has focused on the Confucian cultural peculiarities of East Asia as the motorforce behind the East Asian “miracle”, which is characterised as significant economic boom, increased welfare, and more fair distribution of income in East/Southeast Asia. These peculiarities have both pragmatic and psychological/intellectual dimensions, which, seemingly, operate independently but actually complement each other. Psychologically, Asian values claim an East Asian intellectual and cultural exclusiveness from the “West” but, pragmatically, they actually encourage commercial relations with non-Asians. Australia’s contemporary relations with East Asia are a clear example of this. A trade-oriented and pragmatic engagement with the region has relegated politico-strategic relations to the background. This research argues that to move beyond trade and increase the influence of a non-Asian power, such as Australia in East Asia, the psychological dimension cannot be ignored.
Innumeracy in Turkey: Misperceptions of an Emerging Immigrant Population
Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, pp. 187-207
With Turkey’s recent transition from a nation of net emigration to one of net immigration, it becomes important to understand how the country is adapting to an increasing presence of foreigners. The current study contributes to this end with a focus on the knowledge level of ordinary Turkish respondents regarding their immigrant population. Quantitative analysis of the 2013 Transatlantic Trends Survey indicates a high level of immigrant population innumeracy in Turkey, such that the typical citizen overestimates the foreign born population size by up to 20 percentage points on average. This innumeracy is also associated with various attitudes toward immigrants, but in the opposite direction as has been observed in the U.S. and Europe. Misperceptions are more often associated with positive assessments of immigrants, suggesting that while innumeracy exists in Turkey, as of now, it seems to be of little consequence.
Istanbul of the Mind
Insıght Turkey Volume 17 No 2, 2015
By Joseph Kanon
London: Simon and Schuster, 2013, 404 pages, $11.85, ISBN 978147398345
İstanbul: Perfect Gems of City Writing
By İlhan Çiler
London: Oxygen Books in association with the British Council, 2013, 254 pages, £9.99, ISBN 9780955970092
Sailing Through Byzantium
By Maureen Freely
Edinburgh: Linen Press, 2013, 278 pages, $13.65, ISBN 9780957596818
Religion as a Conversation Starter: Interreligious Dialogue for Peacebuilding in the Balkans
Ina Merdjanova and Patrice Brodeur, Reviewed by Önder Çetin, Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, p. 215
Informal Power in the Greater Middle East: Hidden Geographies
Luca Anceschi, Gennaro Gervasio and Andrea Teti, Reviewed by Pascal Abidor, Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, p. 217
Mobilizing Religion in Middle East Politics: A Comparative Study of Israel and Turkey
Yusuf Sarfati, Reviewed by Hakkı Taş, Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, p. 222
Egyptian Revolution 2.0: Political Blogging, Civic Engagement, and Citizen Journalism
Mohammed el-Nawawy and Sahar Khamis, Reviewed by Marwa Fikry Abdel Samei, Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, p. 219
Tocqueville in Arabia: Dilemmas in a Democratic Age
Joshua Mitchell, Reviewed by Abdessamad Belhaj, Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, p. 224
Rethinking Security in the Age of Migration: Trust and Emancipation in Europe
Ali Bilgiç, Reviewed by Canan Ezel Tabur, Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, p. 226
Turkey, the Jews, and the Holocaust
Corry Guttstadt, Reviewed by Peter Admirand, Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, p. 228
International Orders in the Early Modern World: Before the Rise of the West
Shogo Suzuki, Yongjin Zhang and Joel Quirk, Reviewed by Sung Hee Ru, Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, p. 230
The United States and Great Power Responsibility in International Society: Drones, Rendition and Invasion
Wali Aslam, Reviewed by Dimitrios Anagnostakis, Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 2 / 2015, p. 232
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics (2 volumes)
Emad El-Din Shahin, Reviewed by Muhammad Yaseen Gadda, Insight Turkey, Vol. 17 / No. 1 / 2015, p. 234