Fall 2014 Volume 16 No. 4

Fall 2014 Volume 16 No 4


Insight Turkey Volume 16 No 2, 2014




Toward a Turkish-Russian Axis? Conflicts in Georgia, Syria, and Ukraine, and Cooperation over Nuclear Energy


Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 13-23

This article analyzes Turkish-Russian relations since the end of the Cold War (1992-2014) from a neorealist perspective, while highlighting relevant analogies and major turning points. Georgia (2008), Syria (2011--), and Ukraine (2014--) crises have has been detrimental for the two countries, mutual economic interests with strategic significance, such as the increasing importance of Turkey as a potential reseller of Russian natural gas, have sustained a high level of cooperation between the two countries.
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A Post-2014 Vision for Turkey-Africa Relations


Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 23-33

Turkey’s foreign policy in Africa has achieved more than what initially has been planned as Opening to Africa in the last decade. A new post-2014 vision for Africa is necessity for variety of reasons including the tiredness among some segments of society and some state institutions. This article outlines the challenges fort his vision and put forward some ideas for the future of Turkey-Africa relations. The underlying point is that time has come for partnership with other actor in Africa to deepen further the relations.
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A Year After Euromaidan: Pro-European Forces Wins the New Parliament



Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 33-45

Despite the annexation of Crimea and the war in Donbas, early presidential and parliamentary elections in Ukraine were held in accordance with the demands of Euromaidan (Revolution of Dignity). Candidates from the ousted president Yanukovych’s party also participated although its support dropped dramatically from 30% to 9.5%. Both the far left and the far right did not meet the 5% voter threshold. The new elections produced an overwhelming pro-European majority. The challenges remain substantial, as the president and the new government need to conduct unpopular reforms in the context of a war-time economy.
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The Political Economy of a Lasting Israel-Hamas Truce


Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 45-55

At the conclusion of the summer 2014 Gaza War Israel, Hamas, and the P.A. agreed to meet in Cairo, Egypt to discuss a long-term ceasefire. The goal of this summit was to allow for Gaza to rebuild itself, and for political changes associated with June’s Unity Government deal between the P.A. and Hamas to take effect. The summit has since been postponed. However, Gaza still requires significant financial and material aid in order to function and provide for its people. This work examines the economic and security benefits to all parties involved of a long-term ceasefire between Israel, and Hamas. An economically open Gaza benefits Israel, the P.A. and Hamas, with few associated costs and creates an opportunity to reinvigorate final status negotiations.
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Migration, Urban Space and Diversity: A Case from Istanbul


Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 55-65

The growing flow of international migration to Turkey has serious implications for the social, economic and spatial transformation of recipient cities across the country. This paper highlights some of these implications by discussing findings from an ethnographic case study carried out in an inner-city locality of Istanbul. It raises four main points: 1) urban localities of migrant settlement are not accidental; 2) they are often highly diverse in new and complex ways; 3) space and difference are intricately intertwined in such urban localities; and 4) migration and diversification at the local scale can produce conflicted space narratives and governance systems. This paper aims to emphasize the importance of acknowledging the position and impact of migration to Turkey in the framework of larger processes of urban and societal transformation.
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Perceptions of Syrians in Turkey


Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 65-77

This article is a summary of the study “Syrians in Turkey: Social Acceptance and Integration,” which was conducted by the Hacettepe University Migration and Politics Research Center-HUGO in six cities based on interviews with Syrians and locals and analysis of the media and NGOs. Over 1.8 million Syrians arrived in Turkey and accepted under “temporary protection” status between April 2011 and December 2014. The efforts of the Turkish government and society has spent 5-5,5 billion dollars on the crisis. Turkish society has been overwhelmingly accepting of Syrians. However, concerns and objections are increasing as the permanency of Syrians in Turkey becomes more visible. Therefore, it is essential to develop strategies on permanency with the support of Turkish society.
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Counter-Trafficking Policy and Immigrant Rights in Turkey



Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 77-85

ABSTRACT This analysis offers an evaluation of the last three elections of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) in Iraq. These three elections included the regional parliamentary elections in September 2013, and the local and federal elections held simultaneously in April 2014. The KRG, as a federal region, exists in the north of Iraq where Kurds have managed their own affairs through a regional government since 1992. The KRG elections have very little in common with elections in the rest of Iraq. Compared to the rest of Iraq, the “region” has experienced a very different trajectory during the last two decades. As a postwar region, the KRG strives to solidify a stable democracy in a landlocked region, which suffers from minimal economic capital and weak democratic culture.
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Turkey’s Transition to an Immigration Country: A Paradigm Shift

Franck Düvell

Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 87-105

This article argues that Turkey is going through a paradigm transition regarding its migration characteristics and has changed from an emigration to an immigration country. It briefly reviews the history of immigration of mostly ethnic Turks or other Muslims to Turkey, but then concentrates on contemporary non-Turkic and non-Muslim immigrants. In the first part, it distinguishes between flows of travelers and migrants and stock of immigrants. Notably, it illustrates national diversity, assesses the quantitative level of immigration to Turkey, including estimates on irregular immigration, and addresses the geographic dispersal of immigrants across the country. In the second part, it analyzes the macro-level economic, political and social factors and discrepancies between Turkey, its neighbors and other countries in the wider region, which represent the structural determinants of migration. It concludes that immigration to Turkey is still comparably low but that due to macro-level factors, it could grow. In order to develop adequate policy responses, more research must be done.
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The Immigration of Russians and Azerbaijanis to Antalya (Turkey): Who Are They? Why Are They Here?

E. Murat Özgür

Ayla Deniz

Derya Hasta

M. Murat Yüceşahin

Sutay Yavuz

Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 105-123

Turkey in the recent years has become a destination for individuals from various regions, migration histories and experiences, with an explicit increase observed in the number of those coming from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Migrant groups coming to Turkey gather geographically in certain cities such as Antalya, a touristic city that has become an important migration destination, particularly for Russians and Azerbaijanis. The study aims to be acquainted with these migrants, who have been the subject of very few analyses, and to understand why they have immigrated to Antalya, substantially within framework of “Who are They?” and “Why are they Here?” It is based on data obtained from a comprehensive questionnaire applied to 418 Russian and Azerbaijani respondents. Moreover, the data is supported by observations, in-depth interviews and media analysis.
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Guests And Hosts: European Retirees In Coastal Turkey

Prof. Dr. Canan BALKIR

Dr. İlkay SÜDAŞ

Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 123-143

As a country in transition from emigration to immigration, Turkey hosts many diverse migrant groups, creating a very dynamic research field to explore. Amongst them, European retirees have settled in the coastal Turkish Riviera. This paper tries to understand the perspectives of both retired EU migrants and local hosts on migration and settlement processes. After briefly describing the geographical distribution of EU citizens in Turkey, the paper focuses on the demographic characteristics and socio-economic integration of retired migrants in Antalya, the most popular destination in Turkey.
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Negotiating Modernity and Europeanness in the Germany-Turkey Transnational Social Field


Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 143-159

In conversation with recent work on transnational social fields, this article explores how Germany and Turkey are linked through a “set of multiple, interlocking, networks of social relationships” . The article examines how the social field affects migrants returning from Germany to Turkey. Specifically, it describes how the transnational social field emerges through a concrete set of economic, political and cultural exchanges. It also illustrates that the social field is a space of imaginations of Germany and Turkey, reflecting and producing citizens’ uncertainties about the “Europeanness”. For German-Turkish return migrants, the transnational social field exacerbates conflicts with non-migrants and fosters anxieties about migrants’ “Germanization” and loss of “Turkishness.” Ultimately, this research shows that Turkish citizens remain deeply concerned about the meaning of modernity, Muslim citizenship in Germany, and Turkey’s current and future position in Europe.
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Afghan (Re)Migration from Pakistan to Turkey: Transnational Norms and the ‘Pull’ of Pax-Ottomanica?


Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 159-183

Many Afghans, often male, in Pakistan are migrating (again) and increasingly toward ‘new’ destinations such as Turkey. Transnational lives are not unusual for Afghans as a method of survival, as well as a space for ‘self-making’. However, these migrations are also the result of Turkey’s own regional ambitions and projection of itself as a modern neoliberal ‘Muslim’ state. Moreover, increased migration is also a result of the historic role that cheap labor migrants, particularly from Central/South Asia, have played in the development of rising neoliberal economies. Thus in the 2000s and 2010s, as Turkey’s ‘star’ rises, so too does Turkey find itself shifting from a migrant sending to a migrant receiving state.
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Stuck on the Way to Europe? Iranian Transit Migration to Turkey


Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 183-201

This article discusses Turkey’s increasing role as a country of immigration by using the case study of Iranian migration to Turkey. While Turkey predominantly functions as a transit country for Iranians on their way to the West, this article will focus on a small group of Iranian migrants who went to Turkey with the purpose of transit but eventually settled down in the country. At the same time, the article investigates the concepts of “transit” and “settlement” among a growing group of Iranian students who entered Turkish universities in recent years. In which ways can these students be compared to other Iranian migrants in Turkey? And to what extent are Turkey’s institutions for higher education becoming an easy channel for migrants looking for ways to leave their home country?
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EU-Turkey Relations in the Context of the Middle East after the Arab Spring



Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, pp. 201-219

This paper discusses EU-Turkey relations with a specific reference to regional developments in the Middle East after the Arab Spring. In the last decade, the Turkish government has tried to intensify Turkey’s influence in the region. However, increasing activism in Turkey’s foreign policy toward the region was not accompanied by a parallel commitment in its relations with the EU. In the meantime, the EU was caught unprepared by the Arab Spring in the middle of the Euro-zone crisis, and now its strategic interests are being threatened by regional instability. Both sides have been faced with the task of adapting their policies to the political transitions in the region. After an analysis of their contemporary regional policies, this article argues that even though their strategies are not totally in line with each other, Turkey follows the same objectives that the EU neighborhood policy has pursued towards the Middle East.
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The Future of Religious Freedom: Global Challenges
Allen D. Hertzke, Reviewed by Reviewed by Erdem Dikici, Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, p. 229

The Seljuks of Anatolia: Court and Society in the Medieval Middle East
A.C.S. Peacock And Sara Nur Yildiz, Reviewed by Valerie Behiery, Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, p. 231

Turkey, Modern Architectures in History
Sibel Bozdoğan And Esra Akcan, Reviewed by Tahire Erman, Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, p. 234

The Rise of China and Chinese International Relations
Hung-Jen Wang, Reviewed by Emilian Kavalski, Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, p. 238

Muslims in Modern Turkey: Kemalism, Modernism and the Revolt of the Islamic Intellectuals
Sena Karasipahi, Reviewed by Shaimaa Maguedr, Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, p. 240

Democracy, Islam, and Secularism in Turkey
Ahmed T. Kuru And Alfred Stepan, Reviewed by Mauricio Jaramillo Jassir, Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, p. 242

Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Conflict in the South Caucasus
Ohannes Geukjian, Reviewed by Mehmet Fatih ÖZTARSU, Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, p. 244

Israel and the United States: Six Decades of US-Israeli Relations
Robert O. Freedman, Reviewed by Priya Singh, Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, p. 247

Turkey Facing East: Islam, Modernity and Foreign Policy
 Ayla Göl, Reviewed by Anita Sengupta, Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, p. 249

African Agency in International Politics
William Brown And Sophie Harman, Reviewed by Candice Moore, Insight Turkey, Vol. 16 / No. 4 / 2014, p. 251